According to the Law on Foreigners and International Protection numbered 6458 (the “Law”), foreigners who intend to stay in Turkey beyond the duration of their visa or their visa exemption or, [in any case] longer than ninety days should obtain a residence permit. The residence permit shall become invalid if not used within six months.
Applications for residence permits shall be lodged with the consulates in the foreigner’s country of citizenship or legal stay. Foreigners applying for a residence permit shall be required to hold a passport or a travel document valid at least sixty days beyond the duration of the requested residence permit. Where the information and documents required for the application is incomplete, the assessment of the application may be postponed until such information and documents are submitted. The applicant shall be informed of the missing information and documents. The consulates shall convey the residence permit applications, together with their remarks, to the Directorate General. The Directorate General shall, after finalizing [the assessment of] the applications, inform the consulate to issue a residence permit or refuse the application, seeking the opinion of the relevant institutions when it deems it necessary. [The assessment of] the applications shall be finalized no later than ninety days.
A part from above, it is also important to note that applications for residence permits can also be lodged in Turkey. Applications for residence permits may exceptionally be lodged with the governorates in following cases:
a) pursuant to decisions of or requests from judicial or administrative authorities;
b) when it is not reasonable or possible for the foreigner to leave Turkey
c) for long-term residence permits
d) for student residence permits
e) for residence permits on humanitarian grounds
f) for residence permits for victims of human trafficking;
g) while changing from a family residence permit to a short-term residence permit;
h) by either parent, holding a residence permit in Turkey, for their children born in Turkey;
i) for a residence permit which conforms to the new reason of stay, in cases where the reason for which the valid residence permit was issued no longer apply or has changed;
j) when foreign students who have completed higher education in Turkey transfer to a short term residence permit.